Autism spectrum disorders have been estimated to affect as many as 1 in 100 to 1 in 150 children. Disorders of the autism spectrum share features of impaired social relationships, impaired language and communication, and repetitive behaviors or a narrow range of interests. Many children with autism spectrum disorders also have intellectual disability, and approximately 75% have lifelong disability requiring substantial social and educational support. It is assumed that autism is a heterogeneous disorder that can be associated with various causes, including genetic diseases and inborn errors of metabolism.

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